Why Do Researchers and Educators Still Use the Rosenberg Scale? Alternative New Concepts and Measurement Tools for Self-Esteem
Katsuyuki Yamasaki

Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has been the most frequently and widely used tool in self-esteem research and education. Until recently, findings on self-esteem have steadily accumulated using this scale. However, in recent years, more studies began to indicate various faults of the RSES, particularly in that it does not measure what Rosenberg (1965) demonstrated as the concept of desirable self-esteem. In this paper, first, it isdiscussed why the RSES should not be used in terms of validity. Thereafter, recent new concepts of self-esteem are introduced, including concepts by Deci and Ryan (1995), Kernis (2003), and Yamasaki et al. (2017). Next, according to Yamasaki et al. (2017), it is suggested that desirable self-esteem testing is needed using certain non-conscious measuring tools because self-report (i.e., consciously answered) questionnaires cannot capture desirable components of self-esteem. Regarding new assessment tools, newly developed implicit association tests (IATs) that are completely distinct from previous ones are discussed in terms of their measurementof desirable self-esteem. Finally, it is discussed how programs to enhance desirable self-esteem should operate, given their effectiveness. Thus, the current paper emphasizes the necessity to disseminate new concepts, measuring tools, and programs to correct wrong avenues on which researchers and educators have been treading.

Full Text: PDF     DOI: 10.15640/jpbs.v7n1a9